Multi-paradigm atic research design spaces for cultural studie s researchers . Case research is a unique research design in that it can be used in an interpretive manner to build theories, or in a positivist manner to test theories. These interpretations are heavily contextualized, and are naturally less generalizable to other contexts. Bevir, Mark and Kedar, Asaf. BASIC INTERPRETIVE QUALITATIVE STUDY By Group 4 WHAT What is Basic Interpretive Qualitative Study? Observational techniques include direct observation , where the researcher is a neutral and passive external observer and is not involved in the phenomenon of interest (as in case research), and participant observation , where the researcher is an active participant in the phenomenon and her inputs or mere presence influence the phenomenon being studied (as in action research). Interpretive research has its roots in anthropology, sociology, psychology, linguistics, and semiotics, and has been available since the early 19 th century, long before positivist techniques were developed. For instance, did participants feel safe, free, trapped, or joyous when experiencing a phenomenon (“felt-space”)? Research design is fundamental to all scientific endeavors, at all levels and in all institutional settings. This workshop is made possible through the generous support of the National Science Foundation and the University of Utah (US), University of Toronto (Canada), and Vrije Universteit (Amsterdam, The Netherlands). For instance, if a study’s participants generally agree with the inferences drawn by a researcher about a phenomenon of interest (based on a review of the research paper or report), then the findings can be viewed as confirmable. Ethnography . experience-near perspective in that the researcher does not start with (1978). training and mainstream journals. According to Smith and Osborn (2015), IPA “produces an account of lived experience in its own terms rather than one prescribed by pre-existing theoretical preconceptions” (para 1). In other methods, such as case research, the researcher must take a “neutral” or unbiased stance during the data collection and analysis processes, and ensure that her personal biases or preconceptions does not taint the nature of subjective inferences derived from interpretive research. Use of imageries, metaphors, sarcasm, and other figures of speech is very common in interpretive analysis. Interpretive methodologies position the meaning-making practices Finally, interpretive research may sometimes fail to answer the research questions of interest or predict future behaviors. The previous chapter on case research discusses both techniques in depth and provides illustrative exemplars. Klotz, Audie and Lynch, Cecelia. This method, illustrated in Figure 10.2, can be grouped into data collection and data analysis phases. The researcher is interested in understanding how participants make meaning in a situation or phenomenon. Interview types and strategies are discussed in detail in a previous chapter on survey research. Prasad, Pushkala. Examples of questions that may be asked include “can you describe a typical day” or “can you describe that particular incident in more detail?” These interviews are recorded and transcribed for further analysis. Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (also known as IPA) is a qualitative research design which aims to provide a thorough examination of lived experience. In this This idea is similar to that of external validity in functionalistic research. Cultural Studies in Science Education, 4 (3), p 881-889. Bringing together interpretive principles and practice, this welcome book reminds us that scholars who study not rocks or genomes but people and communities require a commensurate understanding of science. Naturalistic Inquiry . “see through the smoke” (hidden or biased agendas) and understand the true nature of the problem. In this method, the researcher has two roles: rely on her unique knowledge and engagement to generate insights (theory), and convince the scientific community of the trans-situational nature of the studied phenomenon. The researcher’s choice of actions must be based on theory, which should explain why and how such actions may bring forth the desired social change. Sharpe. As with any other interpretive approach, drawing meaningful inferences from case research depends heavily on the observational skills and integrative abilities of the researcher. The paper concludes with a dis- from encounters in "the field" (which we define here broadly, to Armonk, NY: M E assist doctoral students and junior scholars to make their research more [14] Bluebond-Langer, M. (1996). Research design is fundamental to all scientific endeavors, at all levels and in all institutional settings. This is a valuable but often understated benefit of interpretive research, and is not available in positivist research, where the research project cannot be modified or changed once the data collection has started without redoing the entire project from the start. Administrative Science Quarterly , (23), 582-603. The study must ensure that the story is viewed through the eyes of a person, and not a machine, and must depict the emotions and experiences of that person, so that readers can understand and relate to that person. 16, No. encompass both traditional in-country fieldwork, domestic and overseas, political science, in particular. Interpretive research design: concepts and processes. Whether a researcher should pursue interpretive or positivist research depends on paradigmatic considerations about the nature of the phenomenon under consideration and the best way to study it. 351-352. and a set of key readings. Based on action evaluation and learning, the action may be modified or adjusted to address the problem better, and the action research cycle is repeated with the modified action sequence. and method:  Empirical research methods and the interpretive turn. Interpretive analysis: Observations must be interpreted through the eyes of the participants embedded in the social context. Armonk, NY: M.E. It is..  Sharpe. Further, their personal insights, knowledge, and experiences of the social context is critical to accurately interpreting the phenomenon of interest. Joint use of qualitative and quantitative data, often called “mixed-mode designs”, may lead to unique insights and are highly prized in the scientific community. The ethnographic research method, derived largely from the field of anthropology, emphasizes studying a phenomenon within the context of its culture. International Journal of Social Research Methodology: Vol. Interpretive research focuses on analytically disclosing those Phenomenology is a research method that emphasizes the study of conscious experiences as a way of understanding the reality around us. Furthermore, the case researcher is a neutral observer (direct observation) in the social setting rather than an active participant (participant observation). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications. Examples of actions may include organizational change programs, such as the introduction of new organizational processes, procedures, people, or technology or replacement of old ones, initiated with the goal of improving an organization’s performance or profitability in its business environment. Third, all participants or data sources may not be equally credible, unbiased, or knowledgeable about the phenomenon of interest, or may have undisclosed political agendas, which may lead to misleading or false impressions. In interpretivism, researchers acknowledge that they, along with their research participants, co-construct findings that are socially situated but may be transferable to similar contexts. interpretive methodologies encompass an experience-near orientation that To ensure dependability, interpretive researchers must provide adequate details about their phenomenon of interest and the social context in which it is embedded so as to allow readers to independently authenticate their interpretive inferences. appropriate assessment have recently been developed in ways that can independent of cultural-historical specificity. Hence, such research requires an immersive involvement of the researcher at the study site for an extended period of time in order to capture the entire evolution of the phenomenon of interest. While positivist research employs a “reductionist” approach by simplifying social reality into parsimonious theories and laws, interpretive research attempts to interpret social reality through the subjective viewpoints of the embedded participants within the context where the reality is situated. Interpretive research is a framework and practice within social science research that is invested in philosophical and methodological ways of understanding social reality. and textual-archival research). It has become a major philosophy and research method in the humanities, human sciences and arts. Interpretive research can be considered credible if readers find its inferences to be believable. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Fourth, given the heavily contextualized nature of inferences drawn from interpretive research, such inferences do not lend themselves well to replicability or generalizability. Although interpretive research tends to rely heavily on qualitative data, quantitative data may add more precision and clearer understanding of the phenomenon of interest than qualitative data. Interpretive research is a research paradigm (see Chapter 3) that is based on the assumption that social reality is not singular or objective, but is rather shaped by human experiences and social contexts (ontology), and is therefore best studied within its socio-historic context by reconciling the subjective interpretations of its various participants (epistemology). Crafting qualitative research: The regulations and guidelines that structure the ethical review of research in North America—theBelmont Report 7 and the Common Rule8 in the United States and theTri-Council Policy Statement (TCPS)9 in Canada—provide direction for researchers and for the entities charged with oversight of research performed in academic institutions. Sometimes, coded qualitative data is tabulated quantitatively as frequencies of codes, but this data is not statistically analyzed. Confirmability refers to the extent to which the findings reported in interpretive research can be independently confirmed by others (typically, participants). Social Science Research: Principles, Methods, and Practices. Data collection involved participant observation and formal/informal conversations with children, their parents and relatives, and health care providers to document their lived experience. 2007. Concept formation in political The Goal of an Interpretivist Approach to Research With interpretivist research, the goal is to develop an understanding of the subjects and the topic. around research genres and studies that do not fit within established methodologies (Caelli, Ray, & Mill, 2003). Since interpretive research rejects the notion of an objective reality, confirmability is demonstrated in terms of “inter-subjectivity”, i.e., if the study’s participants agree with the inferences derived by the researcher. Ethnography is an interpretive research design inspired by anthropology that emphasises that research phenomenon must be studied within the context of its culture. Lastly, data collection and analysis can proceed simultaneously and iteratively in interpretive research. This method follows an action research cycle consisting of five phases: (1) diagnosing, (2) action planning, (3) action taking, (4) evaluating, and (5) learning (see Figure 10.1). It exemplifies all the charac-teristics of Qualitative Research. 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